Toothache and Diseases of Oral Cavity

Toothache and Diseases of Oral CavityToothache is one of the most feared, unpleasant and irritating aches. Teeth can really make our life a torture and their subsequent treatment is not much more pleasant. We are able to mitigate a lot of similar problems, but there is only one type of doctor who can help us with the sort of problems like dental caries: a dentist. In this case as in other illnesses, prevention is significantly better and more effective than the actual consequent treatment.

The condition and health of the oral cavity and teeth is given by genetic information from our parents to a certain extent, but another part is the correct care, attitude, prevention and lifestyle that are our tools to influence them.

Dental Caries and Toothache

Apparently, the most frequent cause of toothache is occurrence of dental caries and its other complications. We talk about dental caries when not only enamel has been damaged but dentin as well. It is essentially a bacterial infection of the tooth.

Dental caries is one of the most frequent lifestyle diseases. There are several reasons of bacteria penetrating into dentin. One of them is insufficient oral hygiene. In case of lacking oral hygiene and teeth cleaning or a bad teeth-cleaning technique, dental plaque occurs, i.e. a coat on the dental enamel. By long-term action, the plaque disturbs the enamel and causes ache. In case dental caries occurs, the composition of our diet also plays a certain role. Some foods, especially sugars and starch, become acids which may cause teeth to demineralize which leads to their damage and tooth decay. Hereditary disposition for such problems is also significant. The tooth enamel may also get damaged by chipping or disrupting the tooth which may lead to further complications, including tooth decay.

Dental Calculus

It is hardened dental plaque that cannot be removed by teeth brushing any more. Plaque settles in places that are not well reachable with cleaning tools (toothbrush, floss). Settled layers of dental plaque gradually harden and turn into dental calculus which is only removable by a dentist or a dental hygienist. Dental calculus is then removed mechanically or by means of ultrasound. One of the latest removal techniques is so-called air-polishing. It entails using a special tooth paste that smooths out the teeth and slows the plaque settling process and consequently also occurrence of dental calculus.

Toothache and Diseases of Oral Cavity

Tooth Extraction

Tooth extraction or pulling the tooth out is a common dental procedure; however, many patients fear it. Tooth extraction is performed in case where all other treatment methods failed and it is no longer possible to save the tooth. Such reasons are usually severe damage to the tooth by dental calculus, chipped tooth, broken tooth root or advanced periodontitis.

Extractions of third molars, also known as wisdom teeth, are fairly common; keeping the molars may cause a whole range of other problems. In most people, third molars do not develop perfectly. These teeth then remain entirely or partially hidden under the mucous membrane which lead to their higher cariosity. These teeth often become impacted and they pose a threat to the surrounding teeth and bone by their becoming sideways. As far as wisdom teeth in the lower jaw are concerned, they are mostly a cause of inflammatory problems and subsequently also infections. They can have negative influence on general oral health and they also burden the immune system and general health condition of the body. The only effective treatment and a method of prevention is extracting them.

What Does the Procedure Entail?

Before the actual extraction, local anaesthesia is applied to the patient. Surgical forceps or levers are used to perform the extraction, in case of wisdom teeth extraction, tissue is usually cut open. The course of the tooth extraction depends on the dentist's assessment of the situation; the dentist needs to consider the position of the tooth and the condition of surrounding teeth and tissues. The tooth extraction itself is preceded by a full dental examination and consideration of the health condition of the patient. Issues such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart diseases and haemophilia are taken into account. As far as the procedure itself is concerned, local anaesthesia is used; some dental facilities also offer complete anaesthesia. After the anaesthetic is applied, the patient should not feel any pain; however, they still perceive pressure and sometimes also unpleasant tugging sensations in the place of extraction. The anaesthetic doesn't wear off until two to three hours after application. During that time, the patient should not eat anything or drink warm beverages.

Toothache and Diseases of Oral CavityOther types of pain are mitigated by suitable poultices or analgesics. Any kind of mouth rinsing is unacceptable after a tooth extraction. Also refrain from smoking and physical strain after the procedure. During teeth cleaning, be careful in the spot of the extraction; if you sense any complications, contact a doctor to determined further steps immediately.

If you want to shorten the healing period after a tooth extraction, we can recommend application of growth factors that contribute to faster regeneration and support painless and trouble-free post-operation condition. Growth factors are obtained from a small amount of the patient's blood. They are contained mostly in blood platelets (thrombocytes). After some preparation, individual fractions of the growth factors are applied into the operated area.

After the tooth extraction, some swelling or hematoma may occur in the patient's face. To mitigate problems, it is suitable to cool the operated area, best with a special gel sack cooled in a freezer or fridge first. The smaller swelling appears after the extraction, the faster will healing go.

Toothache During Pregnancy

Hormonal changes during pregnancy make teeth ache more often. The propensity to occurrence of dental cavities is also higher during pregnancy. Apart from that, pregnant women also suffer from gum inflammations more frequently. During pregnancy, women should pay increased attention to their dental hygiene and care of their teeth. Their diet is important as well as using suitable nutritional supplements. When the fetus is growing, it is important to provide sufficient intake of minerals and vitamins both in food and in supplements. Pregnant women should mainly focus on calcium, fluorine, vitamin A and D, B vitamins and vitamin C.

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is a very frequent and common infection caused by bacteria settling in gums and on teeth. Painful inflammations attack gums at first and then move to the teeth. The gum inflammation's course has several stages:

Stage

Characteristics

Symptoms

First

Initial stage, slight swelling

Infrequent bleeding from gums after brushing teeth or eating

Second

Developed inflammation

Pain and tingling in gums, exposed tooth necks, spacing between teeth, bad breath

Third

Teeth get released and fall out

The inflammation makes the jaw bone retract, bacteria spreads throughout the body and cause further complicationselém těle a způsobují další komplikace

 Untreated periodontitis leads to loss of teeth!

There are multiple causes to gum inflammation. They are especially:

  • genetic predisposition
  • incorrect dental hygiene
  • bad diet
  • metabolic disorders
  • repeated stress and anxieties
  • weakened immune system
  • excessive alcohol and nicotine abuse
  • untreated cavities and dental plaque

Bruxism - Excessive Grinding of Teeth

Bruxism is the excessive grinding of the teeth and/or excessive clenching of the jaw, overloading the teeth when there is no food to process. This behaviour is subconscious and it is as frequent as snoring. Most people suffering from bruxism do not even realise it because it occurs mainly during sleep. Night bruxism is a bad habit we cannot overcome by force of will. Main causes of this involuntary teeth grinding is stress, suppressed anger, anxiety and frustration. These problems are further worsened by alcohol consumption.

Symptoms and problems accompanying bruxism are aches in the jaw joints, sore chewing muscles, increased teeth sensitivity to warm, sweet, salty and acidity of ingested food. Grinding teeth is dangerous as it may damage them. It may also cause irreversible changes in the area of the jaw joints and surrounding tissue.

Bruxism is a phenomenon frequently observed in children with infectious diseases. In children, bruxism abates on its own after the disease subsides. In people who suffer from bruxism regularly and chronically, measures and treatment are taken by means of plastic interdental splints and muscle-relaxing medicine. Relaxation and various relaxing exercises may also help in case of such problems.

Halitosis or Bad Breath

Toothache and Diseases of Oral CavityBad breath is an unpleasant problem both for the person with it and their surroundings. There are many causes to bad breath and it is not only bad oral cavity hygiene. Bad breath may also be caused by foods with intense aroma (onion, garlic), alcohol consumption, smoking, insufficient drinking regime, infection in oral and nasal cavity, tonsillitis, various intestinal or stomach problems, liver disease and kidney failure.

If you want to prevent having bad breath, clean both your teeth and tongue twice a day. Use mouthwash, especially after a meal. Maintain regular drinking regime and avoid aromatic foods. You can also use various agents for oral cavity disinfection.. Among natural agents, anise, fresh parsley, caraway or fresh mint help when you chew on them. It is also helpful to rinse your mouth with magnolia extract or black tea.

Aphthas in the Mouth

Although it is not a serious disease, occurrence of aphthas in the oral cavity causes unpleasant feelings and pain. These small ulcers of white or yellowish colour with red lining may appear on the tongue, gums, on the palate or on the mucous membrane of lips and cheeks. Aphthas appear suddenly and they usually disappear within one to three weeks. Their occurrence may be conditioned by stress that triggers an excessive immune response of the body and it turns aggressively against bacteria living commonly in the oral cavity.

Aphthas may appear also for different reasons, such as a chipped tooth or ill-fitting dentures. They may even be viral. Sometimes, the trigger factor is unusually spiced meal or citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppers or salty potato chips. If you have a propensity for aphthas, you should take multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements. Other recommended supplements include vitamin C (for enhanced membrane regeneration) and B-complex.


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