Diabetes can affect anyone, regardless of age and gender, including a person who has not the disease genetic predisposition. Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism (saccharides) that begin to occur excessively in the blood. It is so called Hyperglycaemia and it can be traced via laboratory analysis of blood. For this disease is characteristic elevated level of saccharides in the blood. Diabetes carries a vast range of symptoms that can help us detect this disease. Let's have a look at what we should look out for and how to decode what our body is telling us. We very often overlook warnings of our own body and so it is not a wonder that we often come to doctors until the last minute.
Types of diabetes
- Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is due to insufficient production of insulin, which is a pancreatic hormone. It is basically an autoimmune reaction in which the pancreatic cells are destroyed by its own immune system. Most often occurs among children and adolescents. Identifying symptoms can be constant thirst (polydipsia) and with it related frequent urination (polyuria). For this reasons kidney is being overloaded because it is true that the more glucose, the more urine. For children who may suffer from nocturnal enuresis, it is necessary to distinguish whether it is a mental problem, enuresis (leakage of urine in children older than five years due to developmental disorders) or diabetes. In these cases is required correct diagnosis by a qualified professional. Other accompanying effects of diabetes can be constant hunger, weight loss, fatigue, and headaches.
- Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is fundamentally different from the previous type that the pancreas produces insulin to excess, but due to the reduced tissue sensitivity, the body's is not responding on its own insulin. This type of diabetes may develop in adulthood. This type of diabetes is caused by factors such as obesity, long unhealthy lifestyle, and genetic predisposition. This disease occurs in adults and it is most often type of diabetes diagnosed among older people, so you can also know it as a senile diabetes.
- Another type of diabetes is gestational diabetes occurring during pregnancy when blood glucose value may fluctuate due to hormones. In the blood circulates large amounts of sugar that gets through the placenta to the embryo, which is corresponding by raising insulin production. The child is usually born with a greater birth weight and a sudden drop in sugar (hypoglycaemia) can affect it. After birth, most of the problems gradually adjust for both the mother and the child.
Caring for a person with diabetes
Every diabetic should attend regular diabetes clinic, where his condition will be consulted and adjusted in order to avoid the further development of the disease. Not in all cases of diabetes is necessary to administer insulin (ensuring the return of glucose from the blood into cells), sometimes is sufficient choose suitable diet in combination with regular exercise. If the application of insulin is indispensably necessary, a diabetic uses insulin syringe, pen or pump. It is necessary to watch the amount of substance and frequency of doses to avoid health complications. Thus, insulin is injected under the skin, and in the part of body from which is the insulin absorbed fast, such as the arms, abdomen and buttocks. Diabetics should have a meter for measuring glucose, so that they can measure the amount of glucose in the blood, and accordingly adjust the amount of insulin dose, which they need.
What can happen if diabetes is not treated, or eventually if we do not follow the doctor's recommendation? People with diabetes can be affected by various difficulties if they do not adhere the treatment. In addition to disruption of metabolism (which is to recognize that the patient smells like a acetone, is lethargic, confused or very often acts like as he/she is drunk), diabetes can hit major organs such as the heart and brain. Other very unpleasant complications include neuropathy (numbness in the extremities), eye damage (partial or complete blindness), and infectious diseases. Inflammation and ulcers in the lower extremities are accompanied by a nerve disorder. Although the patient does not feel pain, but the leg is hit by infections (often it starts with the toes), which can gradually progress. If we do not treat it in time, it is almost impossible to cure this inflammation, so in most cases there is a partial or complete amputation. This phenomenon is the last stage of the disease and it is called "Diabetic foot" (skin discoloration, skin thinning and deformity), which in the Czech Republic affects about five percent of diabetics (40, 000).
Diabetics should pay attention to enhanced hygiene not only in the limbs, but also in the face. It is also recommended to walk regularly in a special diabetic shoes and permanent control of the limbs and face, because even minor injuries may cause inflammation. With inadequate care can diabetic suffers with gangrene, which appears as a gradually increasing bluish spot. This formation starts to weep from the centre and it stinks, it hit tendons and bones, which die afterwards. In these cases is amputation necessary otherwise, there is danger of blood poisoning.
Exercises and diet for diabetics
People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus of any type have a common part of treatment, and that is the regular exercises and correct alimentation. Treatment is adapted individually for every individual patient, but there are a few tips and recommendations, which are suitable for most diabetics. It is necessary to know the content and quantity of substances contained in food and it is above all is essential to avoid obesity. Obesity leads to the increase of glycaemia and exacerbated care of the body, which can lead to the aforementioned infections. Diabetics should drink during the daytime plenty of liquids, recommended is around two litres a day, and suitable are teas and water. Diabetic should avoid alcoholic beverages, sweetened mineral waters, and juices. Regarding the composition of the diet, diabetic diet should contain about 55% of saccharides, 30% of fats and 15% of protein. Sugars are divided into by rapidly digested sugars (fructose, sucrose) that can help diabetics during hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) and slow digested sugars, which are suitable for diabetics, as part of the daily diet. Polysaccharides are released slowly into the body and thus helps regulate blood glucose, so the diet should comprise plant starches, indigestible fibres, and vegetables. It is better to replace animal fats by plant fats, such as olive oil, and nuts. It also recommends eating fish's meat, which due to its high content of beneficial substances is suitable in diet of each human being. For protein is again preferable to choose those foodstuffs, which have a vegetal origin as e.g. legumes, but it is also possible to eat animal proteins, but rather in smaller portions and it is recommended to choose lighter variants (lean meat, dairy products with lower fat content). Of course, it is necessary to take care that food is taken at regular intervals to avoid excessive deflection of blood sugar levels.
Diet in Mediterranean style
Nowadays belongs among the modern diet Mediterranean cuisine, which is currently recommended for diabetics. Above all, it is because it contains large amounts of fibres, vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids and low animal fats. The main components of the diet are fishes, fruits, vegetables, nuts, olive oil, and whole wheat bread. This diet affects cholesterol level, prevents heart and blood vessels diseases, and helps to loose excess pounds. One could say that the Mediterranean cuisine is suitable not only for all those who suffer from this serious illness, but also for those who want to customize their weight and feel healthier. A healthy lifestyle can positively influence the course of diabetes, it should not be certainly underestimated.
Sweeteners for Diabetics
As with food allergies, for people who suffer with diabetes exists products that try to imitate the taste of food that in their original form could hurt the patient. Diabetics replaced characteristics taste of rapidly digestive sugars, most commonly in the form of synthetic sweeteners, which are also added into the so-called light and fitness products. The best known is probably sweetener called aspartame, which unlike saccharin does not leave an unpleasant taste in the mouth.
Synthetic sweeteners do not support the formation of tooth decay and are much sweeter than classical white table sugar. But on the other hand, it is debatable whether it doesn't cause more harm to our body (it can cause various health problems). The question is whether a refined beet sugar is suitable for everyone. Anyway, it is necessary to pay attention to products containing sweeteners because they cause increased appetite, which can be very risky for diabetics who have to watch the weight and the amount of food ingested per day. This also applies to the selection so-called dia-products, which can be found in almost every supermarket in the food department. Before buying carefully read the content, whether are the ingredients really suitable for diabetics. Unfortunately, it often happens that the manufacturer for increasing of their profit very often state incomplete or distorted information, so it is better to buy tried-and-true food and do not risk too much.
There are also natural sweeteners such as sorbitol, xylitol (occurring for example in fruits) and finally stevia, an herb that is nowadays being increasingly recognized.
Stevia rebaudiana for diabetics
Stevia rebaudiana is a discovery that slowly makes its way into the food industry and will be undoubtedly well accepted. The leaves of this plant are naturally sweet and have almost no caloric value and their use is obviously suitable for diabetics. Stevia is processed into tablet or powder that can be used to sweeten beverages or in the kitchen. The plant itself is not too demanding plant to grow. Everyone can buy it and process it. At home, you can make tincture from it, which you can leave in the refrigerator and use it instead of white sugar. In addition to its sweet taste, stevia is also suitable for treatment of injuries (reportedly after treatment do not stay any scars), digestion. Stevia also contains high amounts of vitamins and minerals. If this plant would replace sugar, as we know it, we would have drop out much suffering, which is mainly related to obesity, and who knows, maybe thanks to its effects will in time decreased the number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
Recipes for Diabetics
Spread from zucchini
- 200 g of zucchini
- 2 garlic cloves
- 3 tomatoes
- 1 teaspoon of lemon juice
- 2 teaspoons of flaxseed oil
Spread the zucchini - preparation process
Dice the zucchini and simmer until the water evaporate and then let it cool, liquidize it and add the other ingredients. Spread from zucchini is ideal for diabetics, as well as for slimming diet.
Oatmeal cookies with stevia
- 3 ounces of butter or baking butter
- 2 ounces of stevia (in powdery form)
- 3 ounces of fine oatmeal
- 3,5 ounces of plain flour
- 1 large egg
- 1 teaspoon of baking powder
- Pinch of salt
- Handful of raisins
- Handful of chopped nuts
Oatmeal cookies with stevia - preparation procedure
Mix everything together and put it baking sheet lined with baking paper, make small lumps. Bake it in a preheated oven at 150 ° C until are cookies golden brown.
- 150 g of peeled buckwheat
- 100g of carrots
- 50 g of linseed
- 50 g of sunflower seeds
- 50g of grated coconut
- 1 vanilla pod
Buckwheat Crackers - preparation process
Soak buckwheat and seeds overnight in water, this way they become suppler. On the second day, preheat oven to 180 ° C. Liquidize prepared buckwheat and seeds into thick mass. Then, add the grated carrots and grains from the vanilla pod and liquidize everything again. Put a baking paper on a baking tray and shape on it crackers. Bake it for about half an hour, until the surface is brown.
Salad with chicken
- Heat-threated chicken meat
- Handful of chopped nuts
- Lemon juice to taste
- Canned peas
- 1 white yogurt (preferably low fat)
Salad with chicken - preparation process
Grate celery and apples and pour it with the lemon juice. Mix with the meat sliced into strips and add the other ingredients. All mix well and serve.